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Adolescents are the future, yet they are faced with many challenges in navigating their life. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Intelligence to Holistic Individual Characteristics among Malaysian adolescents. A sample of 395 Form Four students were selected using the stratified random sampling method. Two survey questionnaires adopted and adapted from established scales were used to collect data. A pilot study was done to test the reliability and validity of the resultant adapted scales. Data from the main study was analysed for descriptive statistics using IBM SPSS version 27. The data were also analysed using the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) methodology with IBM Amos version 27 as the tool. All measurement models were validated through the pooled confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A second order CFA done confirmed that Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Intelligence were important component factors of Holistic Individual Characteristics. The fitness indices achieved the required level, specifically, the value of RMSEA= 0.041, GFI=0.982, CFI=0.980, TLI=0.970, CMIN/DF=1.645 and P= 0.037; while the b values showed that the most important component factor was Emotional Intelligence (b= 0.794) as compared to Spiritual Intelligence (b= 0.774). This study findings lend evidence to the importance of these constructs in shaping the holistic individual among Malaysian adolescents. It can help relevant authorities and parents to actually focus their efforts in developing the younger generation. Besides that, this study finding also helps to fill in the gap of theoretical knowledge in the area of emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence in relation to holistic individual development as well as in terms of its methodology of analysis.


emotional intelligence spiritual intelligence holistic individual characteristics

Article Details

How to Cite
Noordin, K., Ssekamanya, S., & Ismail, K. (2021). A Model of the Relationships among Emotional Intelligence, Spiritual Intelligence, and Holistic Individual Characteristics Among Malaysian Adolescents. Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 4(1), 13–32.


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