A Model of the Relationships among Emotional Intelligence, Spiritual Intelligence, and Holistic Individual Characteristics Among Malaysian Adolescents


  • Kamaliah Noordin International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Siraje Ssekamanya International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Khamsiah Ismail International Islamic University Malaysia




emotional intelligence, spiritual intelligence, holistic individual characteristics


Adolescents are the future, yet they are faced with many challenges in navigating their life. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Intelligence to Holistic Individual Characteristics among Malaysian adolescents. A sample of 395 Form Four students were selected using the stratified random sampling method. Two survey questionnaires adopted and adapted from established scales were used to collect data. A pilot study was done to test the reliability and validity of the resultant adapted scales. Data from the main study was analysed for descriptive statistics using IBM SPSS version 27. The data were also analysed using the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) methodology with IBM Amos version 27 as the tool. All measurement models were validated through the pooled confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A second order CFA done confirmed that Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Intelligence were important component factors of Holistic Individual Characteristics. The fitness indices achieved the required level, specifically, the value of RMSEA= 0.041, GFI=0.982, CFI=0.980, TLI=0.970, CMIN/DF=1.645 and P= 0.037; while the b values showed that the most important component factor was Emotional Intelligence (b= 0.794) as compared to Spiritual Intelligence (b= 0.774). This study findings lend evidence to the importance of these constructs in shaping the holistic individual among Malaysian adolescents. It can help relevant authorities and parents to actually focus their efforts in developing the younger generation. Besides that, this study finding also helps to fill in the gap of theoretical knowledge in the area of emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence in relation to holistic individual development as well as in terms of its methodology of analysis.


Allen, K., Ryan, T., Gray, D., McInerney, D., & Waters, L. (2014). Social media use and social connectedness in adolescents: The positives and the potential pitfalls. The Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist., 18-31.

Amram, Y., & Dryer, D. (2008). The Integrated Spiritual Intelligence Scale (ISIS): Development and preliminary validation. 116th Annual Conference of the American Psychological Association (pp. 1-45). Boston: American Psychological Association.

Arnout, B. A. K. (2019). Parent’s spiritual intelligence as predictor of adolescents psychological safety. Reserach in Psychology and Behavioural Science, Vol 7, No 1, 1-4.

Awang, Z. (2015). SEM made simple: A gentle approach to learning Structural Equation Modeling. Bandar Baru Bangi: MPWS Rich Publication.

Awang, Z., & Siew Hui, L. A. (2018). Pendekatan mudah SEM Structural Equation Modeling. Bandar Baru Bangi: MPWS Rich Publication.

Beauvais, A., Stewart, J. G., DeNisco, S. M. (2014). Emotional intelligence and spiritual well-being. Journal of Christian Nursing, 166-171.

Beaujean, A. A., & Benson, N. F. (2019). The one and the many: Enduring legacies of Spearman and Thurstone on intelligence test scores Interpretation. Applied Measurement in Education 2019, Volume 32, No. 3, pages 198-215. https://doi.org/10.1080/08957347.2019.1619560

Blunch, N. J. (2013). Introduction to Structural Equation Modeling Using IBM SPSS Statistics And Amos, Second Edition. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Bonnie, R., & Backes, E. (2019). The promise of adolescence: Realizing opportunity for all youth. Washington: The National Academies of Science, Engineering, Medicine.

Boyd, D., & Bee, H. (2012). Lifespan Development. Pearson.

Buzan, T. (2001). The power of spiritual intelligence. Thorsons, Great Britain.

Chong, A., Lee, P., Roslan, S., & Baba, M. (2015, January-March). Emotional intelligence and at-risk students. Retrieved from SAGE Open.: DOI: 10.1177/2158244014564768 sgo.sagepub.com

Christodoulou, J., Davis, K., Gardner, H. and Seider, S. (2011); Chapter 24: The theory of multiple intelligences. Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence. Cambridge University Press. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317388610

Cuesta-Zamora, C., González-Martíb, I., & García-Lópeza, L. (2018). The role of trait emotional intelligence in body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms in preadolescents and adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 457-463.

Department of Statistic (2021). Sampling theory and methods. Retrieved from Pennsylvania State University: https://onlinecourses.science.psu.edu/stat506

Devi, R., Rajesh, N., & Devi, M. (2016, March). Study of spiritual intelligence and adjustment among Arts and Science college students, Journal of Religion and Health. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net: doi: 10.1007/s10943-016-0225-8.

Ebrahimi, M., Jalilabadi, Z., Gholami Ghareh Chenagh, K., Amini, F., & Arkian, F. (2015. ). Effectiveness of training of spiritual intelligence components on depression, anxiety, and stress of adolescents. . Journal of Medicine and Life Vol. 8, Special Issue 4,, 87-92.

Emmons, R. (2000). Is spirituality an intelligence? Motivation, cognition, and the psychology of ultimate concern. International Journal of Psychology of Relogion, 3-26.

Faltas, I. (2017). Three models of emotional intelligence. PA TIMES Online.

Fearon, R., & and Roisman, G. (2017). Attachment theory: progress and future directions. Current Opinion in Psychology., 131-136.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 18(1) 39-50.

Gardner, K., & Qualter, P. (2009). Emotional intelligence and borderline personality disorder. Personality and Individual Differences, 94-98.

Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. (2012). Educational Research Competencies for Analysis and Applications. New Jersey.: Pearson Education Inc.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. Bantam Books, USA.

Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. (2013). Multivariate Data Analysis. Pearson.

Hanefar, S., Siraj, S., & Sa'ari, C. (2015). The Application of content analysis toward the development of spiritual intelligence model of human excellence(ISIMHE). Kuala Lumpur: Global Conference on Business & Social Science 2014.

Hassan, S., & Shabani, J. (2013). the mediating role of emotional intelligence between spiritual intelligence and mental health problems among Iranian Adolescents. Psychology Studies. DOI 10.1007/s12646-012-0163-9 , 73-79.

Jabatan Pendidikan Negeri Selangor (2020), Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. Retrieved from moe.gov.my/korporat/jabatan.

Jabatan Pendidikan Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. Retrieved from moe.gov.my/korporat/jabatan.

Kemahli, H.P (2017). Four inclinations in human nature: Evaluated in the Light of Al-Ghazali’s concept of the heart. Spiritual Psychology and Counseling: 2(1)9-30. DOI 10.12738/spc.2017.1.0016

King, D. (2008). The spiritual intelligence self-report inventory. Retrieved from http://www.dbking.net/spiritualintelligence/

Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of Structural Equation Modeling (4th ed.). New York : The Guildford Press.

Krejcie, R., & Morgan, W. (1970, ). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 607-610.

Malaysia, Ministry of Education. (2018). Standard kualiti pendidikan Malaysia Gelombang 2. Retrieved from moe.gov.my.

Malaysia, Ministry of Education. (2019). National Education Philosophy. moe.gov.my. Jbat

Marks, A., Horrocks, K., & Schutte, N. (2016.). emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between insecure attachment and subjective health outcomes. Personality and Individual Differences., 188–192.

Martins, A., Ramalho, N., & Morin, E. (2010.). A comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health. Personality and Individual Differences., 554–564.

Salami, S. O. (2011). Personality and psychological well-being of adolescents: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Social Behaviour and Personality, 785-794.

Salkind, N. (2006). Exploring research (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.

Sanchez-Ruiz, M., & Baaklini, A. (2018). Individual and social correlates of aggressive behavior in Lebanese undergraduates: The role of trait emotional intelligence. . Retrieved from The Journal of Social Psychology.: DOI: 10.1080/00224545.2017.13534

Sanders, R. (2013, August). Adolescent psychosocial, social, and cognitive development. Pediatrics in Review , 34 (8), 354-359.

Santra, A. (2016). Understanding emotional intelligence in the light of Quranic wisdom and Prophetic traditions. Haldia: Haldia Institute of Technology.

Santrock, J. (2016). Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Schneider, T., Lyons, J., & Khazon, S. (2013, Aug 6). Emotional intelligence and resilience. Personality and Individual Differences, 909-914.

Schutte, N., Malouff, J., & Bhullar, N. (2009). The Assessing Emotions Scale. The Assessment of Emotional Intelligence. , 119-135.

Srivastava, P. (2016). spiritual intelligence: An overview article. ICFAI University.

Thahir, A. & Hidayat, R. (2020). The concept of human personality al-Ghazali and Sigmund Freud in counseling perspectives. KONSELi Jurnal Bimbingan dan Konseling, 7(1): 61-72. DOI: 10.24042/kons.v7i1,6417.

Westenberg, L. (2017). Locating experience in time and place: a look at young adult fiction and spiritual intelligence. International Journal of Children's Spirituality. DOI: 10.1080/1364436X.2017.1287680, 163-169.

Yap, M. H., Koh, D. H., Yap, C. C., Tan S. A., & Gan, S.W. (2019). The impact of emotional intelligence on problem behaviour among adolescents In Malaysia. The Second International Conference on Humanities, The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences. Published by Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.09.6




How to Cite

Noordin, K., Ssekamanya, S., & Ismail, K. (2021). A Model of the Relationships among Emotional Intelligence, Spiritual Intelligence, and Holistic Individual Characteristics Among Malaysian Adolescents. Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 4(1), 13–32. https://doi.org/10.53449/ije.v4i1.154