Main Article Content


The inadequacy of job retention policies in most public and private universities have been adduced as part of the reasons for the massive brain drain going on in the education sector in recent times. This research examined the influence of some organizational variables on lecturers’ job retention and its implications on job productivity. The research adopted the ex post facto research design and used the stratified random sampling technique to select a sample of 935 from a population of 4,392 lectures in public and private universities in Lagos and Ogun States. Five instruments were revalidated and adapted for the study and the analysis of data was done using multiple regression and Pearson Products Moment Correlation on three hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results revealed that the three null hypotheses were rejected. Thus, the composite and relative contributions of the organizational variables; participatory management, performance appraisal and organizational commitment to job retention were seen to have high potency. Based on the findings, universities are advised to strengthen these organizational variables in order to improve job productivity as well as reduce the incidence of brain drain.


job productivity job retention participatory management performance appraisal organizational commitment

Article Details

Author Biography

Osisami R. Adenike, Lagos State University of Education Oto / Ijanikin with a Campus in Noforija Epe

Department of Educational Management, College of Management and Social Science Education

How to Cite
Osisami, R. A. (2023). Organizational Variables and Lecturers’ Job Retention: Implications on Job Productivity. Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 6(1), 62–79.


  1. Academic Staff Union of University. (2013). ASUU strike continues until agreement is implemented.
  2. Adekola, B. (2012). The impact of organisational commitment on job satisfaction: A study of employees at Nigerian Universities. International Journal of Human Resources Studies, 2(2), 21-35.
  3. Adenuga, R. A., Adenuga, F. T., & Ayodele, K. O. (2013). Organizational commitment and turnover intention among private universities’ employees in Ogun State, Nigeria. Open Journal of Education, 1(2), 31-36.
  4. Adeyemo, D. A. & Aremu, A. O. (1999). Career commitment among secondary school teachers in Oyo state, Nigeria: The role of biographical mediators. Nigerian Journal of Applied Psychology, 5(2), 184-194.
  5. Beardwell, J., &Claydon, J. (2007). Human resource management: A contemporary approach (5th ed.) Great Britain, Pearson Education Limited.
  6. Bernard, B. (2012). Factors that determine academic staff retention and commitment in private tertiary institution in Botswana: Empirical Review. Global Advanced Research Journal of Management and Business Studies, 1(19), 278-299.
  7. Bernard, B., Oscar, C., & Morgan, C. (2012). The impact of academic staff recruitment, development and retention policies at Ba Isago University College on their commitment to the college. A Research Journal of Business Management and Accounting, 1(4), 84-97.
  8. Bett, M. (1999). Independent review of higher education pay and conditions. Norwich: stationery office.
  9. Bigambo, O. (2004). Investigation of the output of Moi University academic staff: Challenges and dilemma of trained and untrained teachers. A paper presented during the 3rd Annual International Conference. Kenya, Moi University.
  10. Cargile, B. R., & Bubilitz, B. (1986). Factors contributing to published research by accounting facilities: The Accounting Review, 158-178.
  11. Chew, J. C. (2004). The influence of human resource management practices on the retention of core employees of Australian organisations [PhD Thesis]. Murdoch University.
  12. Chiboiwa, W. M., Samuel, M. O., & Chipunza, J. (2010). An examination of employee retention strategy in a private organisation in Zimbabwe: African Journal of Business Management, 4(10), 2103- 2109.
  13. Court, S. (1999). Negotiating the research imperative: The views of academics on their career opportunities. Higher Education Quart, 53(1), 65-87.
  14. Czkan, T. (2005). Talent scouting: The dynamics of top talent. Journal of the South African Institute of People Management, 23(3), 8-9.
  15. Daly, C. J., & Dee, J. R. (2006). Greener pastures: Faculty turnover intent in urban public Universities. Journal of Higher Education, 7(9), 59-64.
  16. Dockel, A. (2003). The effect of retention factors on organizational commitment: An investigation of high technology employees [Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Pretoria, South Africa.
  17. Freyermuth. (2007). Retaining employees in a tightening labour market, RSM McGladrey.
  18. Gberevbie, D. E. I. (2008). Recruitment and quality academic staff selection: The case study of Covenant University. Ife Psychologia, 14(2), 118-127.
  19. Gede, N. T., & Lawanson, O. A. (2011). Employees’ characteristics and job performance of staff of the Bayelsa State Ministry of Education. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Teaching, Learning and Change.
  20. Griffith, J. (2004). Relation of principal transformational leadership to school staff job satisfaction, staff turnover, and school performance. Educational Administration, 42(3), 333-356.
  21. Gwavuya, F. (2011). Leadership influences on turnover intentions of academic staff in institutions in Zimbabwe. Academic Leadership Journal, 9(1), 46-56. Harlow, Pearson Education Ltd.
  22. Hsu, M. K., Jiang, J. J., Klein, G., & Tang, Z. (2003). Perceived career incentives and intent to leave. Information and Management Journal, 40, 361-369.
  23. Hundera, M. B. (2014). Factors affecting academic staff turnover intentions and the moderating effect of research in business management, 2(9), 57-70.
  24. Hussein, T., & Rehman, S. (2013). Do human resources management practice inspire employee’s retention? Research Journal of Applied Sciences. Engineering and technology, 6(19), Maxwell scientific organizational publisher.
  25. Khan, A. (2012). Performance appraisal’s relation with productivity and job satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 1(2), 99-114. Publisher department of management sciences Qurtuba University of science and IT, Pakistan.
  26. Khan, I., Nawaz, A., Khan, F., Khan, H., Khan., S., & Kundi, A. (2013). The impact of organizational commitment and job satisfaction on the ITL of academicians in HEIs of developing countries like Pakistan. Industrial Engineering Letters, 9.
  27. Khan, M. R., Ziauddin, F. A., & Ramay, M. I. (2010). The impact of organisational commitment on employee job performance. European Journal of Social Sciences, 15(3), 1-7.
  28. Kira, M., Eijnatten, F. M. V., & Balkin, D. B. (2010). Crafting sustainable work: Development of personal resources. Organizational Change Management, 23(5), -632.
  29. Leibowitz, Z. B., Farren, C., & Kaye, B. L. (1986). Designing career development systems. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass Publishers.
  30. Madiha, S., Noor, A., & Tirmzi, S. R. (2009). Determinant of employee retention in telecom sector of Pakistan. Bi Lahore, Pakistan.
  31. Mapolisa, T. (2014). Mitigating staff challenges in public and private universities in Kenya. Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research, 1(4), 140-150.
  32. McKeown, L. J. (2002). Retaining top employees. USA: McGraw-Hill Companies.
  33. Mehta, M., Kurbetti, A., & Dhankhar, R. (2014). Review paper on employee retention and commitment. International Journal of Academic Research in Computer Science and Management Studies, 2(2). Retrieved from
  34. Michael, S.O. (2008). Using motivational strategy as panacea for employee retention and turnover in selected public and private sector organisations in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Master of Commerce Thesis, University of Fort Hare.
  35. Mihyo, B.P. (2007). Staff retention in African universities and links with diaspora study. Report on working group on Higher Education, Windhoek.
  36. Miller, Y. (2010). Labour turnover and its impact on customer service and success of restaurants in London.
  37. Milory, G. (2004). Sense of place in the workplace: The relationship between personal objects and job satisfaction and motivation. Journal of Interior Design, 27(1), 35-44.
  38. Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., & Lee, T. W. (2001). How to keep your best employees: Developing an effective retention policy. Academy of Management Executive, 15(4), 96-109.
  39. Mobley, W. H. (2004). Employee turnover: causes, consequences and control. Reading, London: Addison-Wesley Publishing.
  40. Muindi, F. K. (2011). The relationship between participation in decision making and job satisfaction among academic staff in the school of business University of Nairobi. Journal of Human Resources Management Research, 1-34.
  41. Nabavi, M. (2011). Participatory management in Islamic sciences. Farvardin Press 2nd Edition Tehran.
  42. Naris, N. S., & Ukpere, W. (2010). Developing a retention strategy for qualified staff at the polytechnic of Namibia. In African Journal of Business Management, 4(6) 1078 -1084.
  43. Ng’ethe, J. M., Iravo, M.E., & Namusonge, G. S. (2012). Determinants of academic staff retention in public universities in Kenya: Empirical review. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(13), 205-212.
  44. Odinga, M.J. (2010). Staff development programs and job performance of lecturers of MOI University. Unpublished Masters Project in Higher Education Studies of Makerere University Kampala. 1- 128.
  45. Ogini, B. O., Ogunlesi, C. F., & Faseyiku, I. O. (2013). A study of employee retention strategies and organizational survival in private universities in South West, Nigeria. Journal of Management, 2(1), 1-17.
  46. Ogunyemi, A. O. (2007). Perceived leadership style, motivation and training as predictors of workers’ productivity in a manufacturing industry in Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Counselling Studies, (1), 76-83.
  47. Olmstead, M. A. (1993). Mentoring new faculty: Advice to department chairs. CSWP Gazette, 13(1).
  48. Ologunde, A. O., Asaolu, T. O., & Elumilade, D. O. (2006). Motivation and labour turnover among university teachers in southwest Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 2(1), 1-14.
  49. Parrill, S. (1999). Revisiting rating format research: computer-based rating formats and components of accuracy [Unpublished Manuscript]. Virginia Polytechnic and State Institute, Blacksburg, VA.
  50. Prince, B. J. (2005). Career-focused employee transfer processes. Career Development International, 10(4), 293-309.
  51. Rahman, K. (2012). An effectiveness of human resource management practices on employee retention in Institute of higher learning: A Regression Analysis International Journal of Business Resources Management, 3(2), 65-70.
  52. Robbins, S. P. (2003). Organizational behaviour (10th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
  53. Safari, T., Othman, A., Nubli, M., & Wahab, A. (2012). Gender, academic rank, employment status, university type and job stress among the university academic staff: a comparison between Malaysia and Indonesia context. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(18), 250-261.
  54. Sherman, A., Alper, W., & Wolfson, A. (2006). The retention dilemma.
  55. Shoaib, M., Noor, A., Tirmizi, S., & Bashir, S. (2009). Determinants of employee retention in telecom sector of Pakistan. Proceedings 2nd CBRC, Lahore, Pakistan.
  56. Strebler, M., Pollard, E., Miller, L., &Akroyd, K. (2006). Recruitment and retention of staff in higher education. Universities and Colleges Employers Association.
  57. Sutherland, M. M. (2004). Factors affecting the retention of knowledge workers. Published PhD Thesis. Rand Afrikaans University.
  58. Taylor, C. R. (2004). Retention leadership. T+D, 58(3), 41-45.
  59. Tettey, J. W. (2006). Staff retention in African universities: elements of a sustainable strategy. Washington DC: World Bank on
  60. Tettey, J. W. (2009). Deficits in academic staff capacity in Africa and challenges of developing and retaining the next generation of academics. Partnership for Higher Education in Africa.
  61. Uludag, O., khan, S., & Guden, N. (2011). The effects of job satisfactory organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviour on turnover intention in Florida. International University Review, 29(2), 1-21.
  62. Wells, M., & Thelen, L. (2002). What does your work place say about you? The influence of personality, status and workplace on personalization. Environmental and Behaviour, 34(3). 300-321.

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.