Empowered School Environment for Effective Learning in Uganda’s Muslim Founded Primary Schools


  • Muhammad Musoke Kiggundu Makerere University Kampala
  • Badru Musisi Makerere University Kampala
  • Abdul-Nasser Matovu Kiwewesi Vital Bridge Educational




barriers to effective learning, empowered school environment, Muslim founded primary schools, Universal Primary Education, effective learning


We present the envisioned framework for Empowered School Environment (ESE) in Uganda’s Universal Primary Education (UPE) schools. An ESE is critical for attaining functional literacy, numeracy and life-skills that deprived children need to become confident, resourceful, innovative and high achievers in life. Launched in 1997, UPE was introduced to create and sustain an inclusive and enabling school environment for upward social mobility of children from poor households. However, 25 years down the road, the envisioned mobility remains a distant dream. We attributed this irksome shortfall to a series of Barriers to Effective Learning (B2EL) in UPE schools; specifically, in schools founded by Uganda’s Muslim community. The barriers include, but are not limited to: overcrowded classes; scarce learning materials; teacher-centered learning; lack of school meals; poor water, sanitation and hygiene; teacher apathy; and lack of PWD-friendly environment. The B2EL are exacerbated by declining government spending on the education sector and rising household poverty. We gave the implication of the barriers for the learning achievement, and suggested a framework for mitigating the barriers so as to promote and sustain ESE in Muslim founded UPE schools.

Author Biographies

Muhammad Musoke Kiggundu, Makerere University Kampala

Department of Humanities and Language, School of Education, College of Education & External Studies

Badru Musisi, Makerere University Kampala

Department of Foundations & Curriculum Studies, School of Education, College of Education & External Studies

Abdul-Nasser Matovu Kiwewesi, Vital Bridge Educational

Play-based Learning Concept Developer


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How to Cite

Kiggundu, M., Musisi, B., & Kiwewesi, A.-N. (2023). Empowered School Environment for Effective Learning in Uganda’s Muslim Founded Primary Schools. Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 6(2), 100–121. https://doi.org/10.53449/ije.v6i2.314




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